Pat Shingleton: "Early Climate Predictions and Dutch Dikes..."
Venice, Italy continues to deal with excessive flooding. Other interesting, monthly events include November 18, 1421 when wind driven waves from an intense storm breached Dutch dikes. Records indicate that 72 villages were leveled, killing more than 10,000 and is known today as the St. Elizabeth Flood. A tornado outbreak on November 20, 1900 caused extensive damage in Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama killing 77. On November 16, 1989 a deep cold front cranked up 58 mph winds in New York. In Manhattan, these winds snapped an I-beam from a twenty story building. On November 17, 2016, record highs were reported in Salt Lake City, UT at 70 degrees with Grand Junction, CO hitting 68 for the warmest readings ever recorded so late in the season. Luke Howard is best known for the naming system of clouds and dabbled in urban temperatures and those in the country. Noah Webster may be known for the dictionary but also displayed his expertise in climatology. An analysis of his writings, reported in Weatherwise Magazine, indicated that Noah may have beaten Howard by 21 years as Webster published in 1799 on the effects of weather. His observations, made in New York for one year, found the mean temperature ran 1.5 degrees higher and predicted that excess city heat was the cause. He explained, “The air in the city cools less at night, than the country and ice as thick as glass formed a mile from New York.”