Pat Shingleton: "Phenology and Meltwater..."
Ice phenology is the study of cyclical timing of events from freezing to thawing. This event is used to determine climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems. Most freshwater lakes and rivers are in the Northern Hemisphere where temperatures drop below freezing and form ice. A decline in meltwater from 2010 to 2012 hasn't occurred since 1971 in Canada. Researchers studied 70 lakes in Manitoba and found that they have dropped to one meter depths. Meanwhile, in the last 10,000 years, the Greenland Ice Sheet shrank to its smallest size 3,000 to 5,000 years ago when ocean temperatures were extremely high. This finding suggests ocean temperatures, not atmospheric temperatures, are a critical factor in melting ice sheets and global warming