WBRZ http://www.wbrz.com/ WBRZ Pat Shingleton Column Pat Shingleton Column en-us Copyright 2018, WBRZ. All Rights Reserved. Feed content is not avaialble for commercial use. () () Mon, 10 Dec 2018 HH:12:ss GMT Synapse CMS 10 WBRZ http://www.wbrz.com/ 144 25 Pat Shingleton: "Snow Sheds and the Attack Forecast..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-snow-sheds-and-the-attack-forecast-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-snow-sheds-and-the-attack-forecast-/ Pat Shingleton Column Thu, 6 Dec 2018 10:59:25 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

One of the many hazards included in the construction of the transcontinental railroad was snow.  Massive amounts of snow from the Sierras eastward to Sacramento created avalanches that often wiped out newly constructed stretches of rail. In 1887 engineers used implemented heavy beams from local timber to construct a sturdy device that not only furthered construction but keep the trains rolling, even today. They're called snow sheds and initially were placed over several miles of exposed track to funnel the sliding snow over the top of the tracks. Today the snow sleds remain a common method for combating the destructive force of avalanches on railroad and highway routes throughout the world.  Instead of wood they are constructed with reinforced concrete and steel.  On steep slopes, dangerous snow conditions are lessened by installing snow fences that anchor the snow packs. Today marks the 75th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack by the Japanese Imperial forces was not deterred by weather however coded covert weather terminology was used to alert oversees officials prior to the attack. When Japanese-Soviet relations were broken the message would read, KITA NO KAZE KUMORI or "North wind, cloudy." If Japanese-British ties were cut, the message would read, NISHI NO KAZE HARE or "West wind, clear" and severing relations with the United States; the message would read, HIGASHINO KAZE AME, or "East wind, rain." The message was broadcast at the end of shortwave radio reports also alerting officials to destroy all sensitive documents.


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Pat Shingleton: "Anniversaries: St. Nicholas and Fog..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-anniversaries-st-nicholas-and-fog-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-anniversaries-st-nicholas-and-fog-/ Pat Shingleton Column Wed, 5 Dec 2018 9:52:46 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

Today is the Feast of St. Nicholas and since the fifth century it has been celebrated on this date. Nicholas was the bishop of Myra which is modern-day Turkey. As noted in previous articles, The Little Blue Book - Advent and Christmas Seasons mentions that Nicholas aided people in need, anonymously throwing small bags of gold in their windows.  The legend has the bags landing in stockings drying near the fireplace. His generosity encouraged others to give gifts during Candlemas.  English reformers replaced Nicolas with Father Christmas, believing he was too close to the Catholic Church. Later the name became Santa Claus and Clement Moore gave him a sleigh, reindeer, pipe, bag and a chimney in "The Night Before Christmas." Another "anniversary," is identified... London, England has experienced numerous episodes of “Great Stinking Fogs” and inversions act like a lid, preventing the air from moving. On December 5, 1952, a dense, gray vapor was haloing London’s streetlights.  The ground was damp and chilly after a stretch of cold, rainy weather and no fronts were available to stir the atmosphere.  This inversion began the Great London Smog that lasted for three months as thousands of Londoners died from the effects of polluted air. It was also known as “modern London’s most massive civilian disaster.”  For the first time in history the event began a campaign of limiting the poisonous side effects of industrial pollution.


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Pat Shingleton: "Rods, Shoes and Pots..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-rods-shoes-and-pots-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-rods-shoes-and-pots-/ Pat Shingleton Column Mon, 3 Dec 2018 11:00:12 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

"Poor Richard's Almanac" included an article in 1753 entitled "How to Secure Houses from Lightning." An inventor explained the success of his experiments with rods attached to the homes of fellow Philadelphians. In 1760, merchant William West's home was hit by lightning. The rod attached to West's home performed just as its inventor had predicted, and the house remained unscathed. As people in Europe hailed the invention, others were antagonistic to the idea. In addition, church leaders rejected the idea of protecting the church steeples from lightning, believing that these strikes were an act of God. In Italy, military authorities would store explosives in church vaults, feeling they were secure. In 1767, the church of St. Nazaire in Brescia was hit by lightning exploding 100 tons of gunpowder. As you probably know, the inventor of the lightning rod was Benjamin Franklin, still keeping us safe today. From rods to pots...Lobster pots are identified with a tag, noting the owner and port of origin. In 1990, a Korean container ship bound for the United States experienced treacherous weather and 80,000 Nike shoes were swept overboard.  Oceanographers used the shoes as “tracers,” providing validation of ocean currents. Shoes from the shipment are still retrieved on beaches from Alaska to Oregon and Hawaii.  In 2010, in Waterville, County Kerry Ireland, Rosemary Hill retrieved a lobster pot including a plate depicting the name, Richard F.Gueiredo.  The plate came from the Andrea Gail, showcased in Sebastian Junger’s book, “Perfect Storm”. The pot was adrift since October 1991 when it capsized, killing all onboard. The pot drifted for 20 years over 3,000 miles of ocean.


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Pat Shingleton: "The Longest Burning Bulb and 1898..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-longest-burning-bulb-and-1898-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-longest-burning-bulb-and-1898-/ Pat Shingleton Column Thu, 29 Nov 2018 10:27:06 PM Pat Shingleton : Pat Shingleton:

Light is defined as the phenomenon of luminous radiation from the sun, other stars and bright objects.  The sun is expected to continue shining for another 5 billion years. There's another simple light that has lit a firehouse since their pumper was pulled by a horse. In 1901, the bulb provided enough light for the firefighters to light their kerosene lanterns and go to the fire.  It's called the Livermore bulb, and has been burning for 117 years. On May 21, 2013 the bulb went out at 6:13 A.M. but came-back-on at 6:17 A.M.. The 4-watt bulb with the curly carbon filament was made by the Shelby Electric Co. in Ohio that went out of business in 1912. The designer was Adolphe A. Chaillet and included a carbon filament. The loop inside the bulb, from below, looks like the word "no" in cursive. It's the longest burning bulb ever. Hurricane Season 2018 ends today with plenty of unfortunate memories for folks on the Florida Panhandle. Another incident identifies the weather on the Saturday evening after Thanksgiving, 1898 in New England that was rapidly deteriorating. In 90-mile-per-hour winds and 30-foot-seas, The Portland’s captain was known as a "storm racer" and would regularly make runs from Boston to Portland, Maine.  The steamship was designed for flat coastal bays and went down at 9:30 PM that was verified by pocket watches that came ashore. It was a victim of “The 1898 Hurricane" that claimed 190 lives and was one of the worst in New England history. One hundred and fifty ships went down that night and in August of 2002 the wreckage of the Portland was located.


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Pat Shingleton: "Tree Rings and Warm Suits..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-tree-rings-and-warm-suits-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-tree-rings-and-warm-suits-/ Pat Shingleton Column Wed, 28 Nov 2018 10:54:31 PM Pat Shingleton Pat Shingleton:

Tree rings are a fingerprint to historic weather events and a dendrologist studies them. Before the pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock, 117 colonists stepped ashore onto Roanoke Island on what is now North Carolina. The Lost Colony of Roanoke remains one of the most intriguing disappearances in our history.  The village disappeared and historians and archeologists were unable to determine their fate.  In 1998, dendrologists uncovered a possible answer as tree rings from a stand of bald cypresses targeted an incredible drought that began before the colonists arrived on July 22, 1587.  A drought may have wiped out the village.We recorded numerous episodes of daytime highs in the 50s with 22 days until the official start of Winter.  The Handy Weather Answer Book suggests mittens are more effective than gloves for warming your hands. During episodes of extremely cold weather exposed parts of your body such as ears, nose, toes and fingers are especially vulnerable. Hunters, fishing enthusiasts and golfers may experience "chilblains;" caused by prolonged exposure to cold, damp weather. Symptoms include: redness, burning, itching and chapping of hands and feet. Years ago, the U.S. Army designed a climate-controlled high-tech uniform and waterproof suits include tubes, similar to NASA's space suits. These suits circulate cold and warm water to accommodate body temperature. The suit is equipped with a computerized tele-screen helmet, and water purifying system, called "Objective Force Warrior".


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Pat Shingleton: "Some Crazy Schtuff..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-some-crazy-schtuff-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-some-crazy-schtuff-/ Pat Shingleton Column Mon, 26 Nov 2018 9:50:03 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

 On this date in 1975, Jim Tollan, on the fourteenth hole of his local club in North Lincolnshire, nailed a mallard duck flying overhead. It fell onto the green in front of the Mallard Inn. “The Almanac of the Infamous, Incredible and Ignored,” reports that in 456 BC a Greek oracle warned that Aeschylus, the father of Greek drama, would “die by a blow from heaven.” After hearing the prediction, the battle hero and author of over seventy Greek tragedies stopped going outdoors during storms.  On a sunny day in Gela, Sicily, a Lammergeyer vulture flew overhead with a tortoise in its claw.  Believing Aeschylus’s bald head was a rock and with hopes of dropping it to open the shell, Aeschylus died. One final story and Thanksgiving...I was invited to my girlfriend’s home for Thanksgiving lunch years ago.  Her Mom, informed me that I pronounced Houston – “eweston” and humid – “u-mid” and her grandson - "you" instead of Hewwwww...  If all of us were transported to my Mom’s Thanksgiving table many years ago, an interpreter would have been summoned..  “You have something comin’ up,” means an item on your schedule or an upset stomach.  “Reddin’ up” is straightening your room and just one table identifies past experiences at the breakfast, lunch or dinner table. “Am I in your road?” – is getting in someone’s way and “warsh” is wash - the nation’s capitol is “Warshington.”  Thanksgiving dinner includes mashed “baa-tate-uz,” and the state west of Pennsylvania is “Oh-high-Ya.”  While, smile, pile and towel are pronounced –“wow, smowel, pal and tile.” A “sweeper” is a vacuum and “push buggies” are grocery carts.


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"Weather in 1621 and.... 1963..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/weather-in-1621-and-1963-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/weather-in-1621-and-1963-/ Pat Shingleton Column Wed, 21 Nov 2018 10:55:38 PM Pat Shingleton:

Historian William Bradford and governor of Plymouth Plantation, chronicled the difficulties of the Pilgrim's crossing. The decision to land on the shores of Massachusetts was dictated by the weather. The small, 180-ton ship, The Mayflower, sailed near the southeastern tip of Cape Cod on November 19th, 1620; expecting to hold course and landing in New York Harbor. With high winds and waves, the crew plotted another course, turning northward, picking up southerly winds and after rounding the tip of the Cape, entered the protected waters of the bay. Clear weather and  favorable winds on November 20th kept The Mayflower on its northerly tack, dropping anchor on the 21st in Provincetown Harbor after 65 days at sea. The winter of 1620-1621 was "a calm winter, such as was never seen here since" wrote Thomas Dudley of Massachusetts Bay. Details as to subsequent winters during the first decade of settlement at Plymouth are sketchy.  Journals that were returned to England may have been slanted toward favorable weather conditions, possibly designed to not only please sponsors, but to persuade other settlers to come to America. Almost half of the original passengers and crew of the Mayflower encountered disease during the first winter on the shores of Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bay. Many stayed on the Mayflower, anchored a mile offshore and weather permitting, went ashore each day to build adequate shelters.  As for the Thanksgiving menu, the Pilgrims may have enjoyed: wild fowl, venison, seal, wheat flour, Indian corn, pumpkin, peas, beans, onions lettuce, radishes, carrots, plums, grapes, chestnuts, and acorns. Seasonings were liverwort, leeks, dried currants, and parsnips.  In closing, another front will activate showers late Friday evening; replicating what occurred in 1963. The preliminary forecast for Dallas and Fort Worth on November 22nd, 1963 called for cooler weather affording the First Lady, Jackie Kennedy, the opportunity of wearing a Chanel wool suit - a suit that she wore until the early hours of November 23rd.  The 1961 Lincoln Continental Presidential limousine was flown from Washington D.C. to Texas, the day before. A fast moving front caused a few showers early in the morning and skies were clear for the rest of the day.  History notes that because of favorable weather, and the President’s preference, the plastic bubble top was removed and the bullet-proof side windows were rolled down.


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Pat Shingleton: "A Lava Flow and... the Best Turkey..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-a-lava-flow-and-the-best-turkey-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-a-lava-flow-and-the-best-turkey-/ Pat Shingleton Column Tue, 20 Nov 2018 10:28:57 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

In 1931, the director of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory developed an approach to steer a lava flow from inhabited areas.  Dr. Thomas Jaggar believed that by bombing the flow it could be redirected.  “Acts of God” reports that by 1934, Jaggar not only plotted the history of the Mauna Loa volcano but predicted a major lava flow.  On November 21, 1935, molten lava began flowing from the north flank of the mountain as Jaggar predicted. On December 22, the lava was pooling between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea.  This saddle of lava rapidly turned toward the coastal city of Hilo, 20 miles away.  On December 27, the U.S. Air Corps Bombing Squadron dropped 20, 600-pound bombs in the lava channel, stopping the flow and saving Hilo. Yesterday Pea and Carrots were pardoned by President Trump. With that noted, Ben Franklin suggested that the turkey should be America’s national bird. In previous columns, I referenced a former avid outdoorsman and friend of many, the late Hansen Scobee. Hansen shared with me examples as to the difficulty in bagging a wild turkey, how they adapt to the elements and the difference in taste between those in the wild and those on your table tomorrow. Frank Reese, Jr. started the Good Shepherd Turkey Ranch in 1850 and his descendants continue to conscientiously advance birds meeting standards of perfection. Commercial turkeys are genetically engineered but Heritage Turkeys are not and through Frank’s efforts, years ago, five different breeds have been saved from extinction: the Standard Bronze, the White Holland, the Narragansett, The Bourbon Red and the Black. 


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Pat Shingleton: "The Falling Leaves..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-falling-leaves-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-falling-leaves-/ Pat Shingleton Column Thu, 15 Nov 2018 10:56:31 PM Pat Shingleton Pat Shingleton:

At this time of the year and with our first blast of chilly weather I reminisce of days-gone-by. Similar to yards here in Baton Rouge, our Western Pennsylvania yard was always covered with leaves due to wind direction and maple trees in adjacent yards.  The leaf raking routine was another chore during our younger years.  Once raked, they were transported to the back of the property, separated into smaller piles and burnt.  The E.P.A. was not-existent then and on Wiley Hill this process continues and the smell of burning leaves is a subtle reminder that Fall is ending and the winter winds are about to blow.  Another use for the leaves was "leaf-piling-and jumping." A ten foot leaf pile provided a comfortable “mat” for jumping or diving into, but my brother Mike had another idea.  Our sister, Maureen, was diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia and her symptom was an episode of fainting or “passing out” during physical activities.  once the leaf pile was constructed, neighborhood kids such as “Pumpkin Head” Hulick, “Ears” Tilley, “Skunk” Tritt and “Dumps” Wiley, lined-up, paying Mike a quarter to witness this act. Mike would toss “Re-Re” into the pile where she immediately passed-out. Brought inside, my brothers Denis, Kevin and I would administer first aid.


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Pat Shingleton: "The "V" Formation and Bourbon..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-v-formation-and-bourbon-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-v-formation-and-bourbon-/ Pat Shingleton Column Mon, 12 Nov 2018 10:51:13 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

A few flocks of geese are evident in the area as I often hear the honking over our house. This prompts our guard and attack dog to sprint through the house to let them know who's who... Our four pound Yorkie is much smaller than the birds.
Geese that fly in a "V" formation provide the whole flock with 71% greater flying range than if each bird is on its own. Flying out of formation causes a goose  to experience resistence drag and returns to the formation to take advantage of the lifting power from the bird in front of it. When the lead goose tires, it rotates back into formation and another goose takes over the point position. Geese in the rear of the formation honk to encourage those in the front to hold their speed. If a goose gets sick or wounded, two other geese will leave the formation to lend help and protection and will stay with it until death or until it can fly again. In closing, Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia, set aside sixty acres of land in Bourbon County Kentucky for farming.  He instructed pioneers to build a permanent structure to raise, store and export “native corn.” The crop turned out to be too perishable and was bulky for transporting. When families consumed only limited amounts of the grain, ingenious farmers utilized Kentucky’s perfect combination of water, climate, and white oak forests to create another product- Kentucky Bourbon. Over the years, a manufacturing boom in Kentucky broke records thus creating jobs.  Production of bourbon has increased 21% with more barrels of bourbon in Kentucky than people and the secret to the increase is overseas sales. Local bourbon taster, Billy Edrington, informed me that iron-free water makes the best bourbon.


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Pat Shingleton: "November Events and D-Day Predictions" http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-november-events-and-d-day-predictions-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-november-events-and-d-day-predictions-/ Pat Shingleton Column Fri, 9 Nov 2018 10:24:21 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

Early November weather events created headlines in days-gone-by. On November 10, 1975, 78 mph winds created waves that caused the 729 foot, 13,600 ton ore carrier, Edmund Fitzgerald, to break-in-half and sink in Lake Superior claiming the crew of 29. November 9, 1982 found seven tornadoes touching down in Los Angeles, CA with three of the twisters originating as waterspouts in Malibu and Long Beach. On November 10, 1998, a "land hurricane" set an all-time record for low pressure for the state of Iowa, measuring 28.54 in Estherville and Spencer. The same system cranked winds of 93 mph at La Crosse and Mackinac Island, WI. November 11, 1995 found one of the oldest trees in Alabama toppled by high winds. The storm system swept through the Kymulga Grist Park in Talladega. The 100 foot tree was six feet in diameter and between 200 and 300 years old. Church services Sunday morning will recognize veterans that have served, died, sacrificed and done their duty for our country. It is celebrated on the same day as the signing of the Armistice, ending World War I.  One World War II veteran, Sverre Pettersen, championed the effort, against monumental opposition, to postpone the D-Day invasion until June 6. His forecast averted a potential disaster caused by landing in high winds and waves. The gale-force winds on June 5 died down enough to initiate the landing.  There's more interesting accounts in his book, "Weathering the Storm," including rumors that the Army Air Corps' team saved the day and the British forecasters failed.


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Pat Shingleton: "Weather Elections and the Smell of Bread..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-weather-elections-and-the-smell-of-bread-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-weather-elections-and-the-smell-of-bread-/ Pat Shingleton Column Mon, 5 Nov 2018 10:28:17 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

Our forefathers selected early November as Election Day because the weather in November is moderate - most of the time. In days of old, transportation from rural areas to polling places was compromised by weather. In 1948, weather helped Harry Truman as two inches of rain in Illinois stunted voter turnout but dry weather increased turnout in Ohio. In 1960, steady rain in Illinois deterred rural Republican voters but not Democratic as Chicago voters assisted John Kennedy. Wet weather in two states could have helped Gerald Ford grab 3800 votes from Jimmy Carter. In closing, we are in the season of frontal passages and the movement of air behind the front offers some pleasing aromas. In years past I would exit the Weather Center as my memory would return to Thursday evenings when I was in high school.  For my Mom, Thursday’s were “makin’ a bakin’ of bread” days and after basketball practice, loaves of homemade bread lined the counter. I would catch scents of Mom’s bread courtesy of Flowers Baking Company on Florida. The north wind sent the scent my way.  A northwest wind hits the paper mills near St. Francisville that resembles tomatoes and the Heinz plants on the northside of Pittsburgh.


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Pat Shingeton: "The Halloween Storm and Donora..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingeton-the-halloween-storm-and-donora-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingeton-the-halloween-storm-and-donora-/ Pat Shingleton Column Tue, 30 Oct 2018 10:28:40 PM Pat Shingleton Pat Shingeton:

It was called the Halloween Storm, and the results were devastating. Winds lashed the North Carolina coast at 45 mph for five days. Hurricane-force winds pounded New England with high seas from the Carolinas to Nova Scotia. New Jersey was hit with the highest tides since the Great Atlantic Hurricane of '44. It formed on this date, Oct. 28, 1991, and was the basis for the novel "The Perfect Storm," and the sinking of the sword-fishing boat Andrea Gail. The National Weather Service called it "perfect" because of the set of events that resulted in the horrific storm. An extra-tropical cyclone developed along a cold front that slid off the northeast coast of the United States. With upper air support it deepened as Hurricane Grace made a hairpin turn to the east. What came together was a scary scenario of treacherous sea conditions over the western Atlantic. The Pittsburgh Post Gazette reported an event that happened on October 39, 1948 in Donora, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh was known as the Steel City and communities surrounding it contributed in the production of steel.  On this fateful day, plant emissions and a stagnant air mass allowed pollution levels to rapidly increase. The article noted responses from residents that included the inability to see a football field or not seeing a street curb or the end of your hand. Life magazine ran an article entitled, “Murder From the Mills” with experts noting that if the smog lasted another evening the number of deaths could have topped 1,000.  The smog killed 20 as today, the Donora Smog Museum chronicles the event.


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Pat Shingleton: "Crazy Rain and Falling Fish..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-crazy-rain-and-falling-fish-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-crazy-rain-and-falling-fish-/ Pat Shingleton Column Mon, 22 Oct 2018 6:31:55 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

"The Almanac of the Infamous, Incredible and Ignored" reports that on October 22, 1886, rain fell from clear skies in Charlotte, North Carolina for three weeks. It dropped between 3 and 5:00 PM, lasting between ten and thirty minutes. These showers were isolated between two red oak trees. Rain from cloudless skies were also recorded in Aiken, S.C. and were isolated to a local cemetery between two graves. During the same time period in Chesterfield County, S.C. storms also were reported from cloudless skies for two weeks with Dawson, Georgia also experiencing a 25 foot-wide rain patch. In Stillwater, Oklahoma in October of 1892, showers dropped for weeks on a large cottonwood while places surrounding the tree suffered from a drought. In closing, on October 23, 1947, the cafe in Marksville was suddenly filled with news that "fish were falling from the sky." A biologist for the Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries provided this account: "In an 80,000 square foot area, thousands of freshwater fish, native to local waters, were landing on Main and Monroe streets. The fish were falling in intervals, landing on roofs and in back yards." Marksville's Bank Director, J.M. Barnham discovered hundreds in his yard while his cashier, J.E. Gremillion was clunked on the head with a "hickory shad." Researchers have reviewed the data from this day that recorded mild weather, light breezes but remain stumped as to the cause of the Great Fish Fall in Marksville.


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Pat Shingleton: "Lewis and Clark and Wrecked Ships..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-lewis-and-clark-and-wrecked-ships-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-lewis-and-clark-and-wrecked-ships-/ Pat Shingleton Column Fri, 19 Oct 2018 10:37:40 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark began their expedition of discovery to the Pacific Ocean, President Jefferson made sure they were well supplied.  Along with the best Kentucky rifles, powder horns and lead shot, their supplies included portable soup, fish hooks, mosquito netting, flints, the finest instruments of navigation, a microscope, and cloth for trading.  Lewis and Clark’s journals noted a variety of flora and fauna unknown to science at that time. They also transported three thermometers into a portion of America where meteorological observations had never been reported.  Their notations included the number of rainy, cloudy and clear days along with lightning, snow, hail, ice, seasonal prevailing winds and plants and animals reactions to the elements. From the land to the sea and weather that created unlucky situations for four ships in October, 1829.  Sailing from Australia, the schooner “Mermaid,” encountered a squall that slammed the ship onto a reef. The crew of 22 clung to a rock for three days until their rescue by the “Swiftsure.”  Five days later, the “Swiftsure” was bashed upon the rocks, destroying the ship as the crews of both vessels made it ashore.  After eight hours, the “Governor Ready” saw their signals and rescued everyone.  Three hours later the crews of all three boats abandoned ship as fire erupted. Outside the shipping lanes, crammed lifeboats were found by “The Comet,” a cutter that continued the sequence of rescues. A nasty storm wrecked this boat but “The Jupiter” came to the rescue with not one life lost.


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Pat Shingleton: "Spiders and Lightning..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-spiders-and-lightning-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-spiders-and-lightning-/ Pat Shingleton Column Thu, 18 Oct 2018 9:49:27 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

In October of 1881 a bunch of spiders spun a web that was observed from Milwaukee to Sheboygan, Wisconsin.  Acts of God, The Old Farmer’s Almanac noted that it wasn’t rainfall that caused the huge cobweb but the migratory habits of a certain species of spiders.  The spiders reportedly spun their silk and with the breeze on the western shore of Lake Michigan, they tagged along for a long ride.  Residents believed that the webs came across the lake nearly 100 miles away then began their decent to the ground.  In Green Bay, Wisconsin residents noted the strong, white strands which varied greatly in size. Some were mere specks while others were 60 feet in length, thickly filling the sky as far as the eye could see.  Another item, Ben Franklin is recognized as an inventor that, include his experiments with lightning. He was inspired by other inventors and scientists, especially French academic, Thomas Dalibard who actually performed the first lightning experiment. Franklin desired to duplicate Dalibard's experiment and did so from Philadelphia's Christ Church on October 19, 1752. According to his diary, Franklin made a cross of two light sticks, reaching the four corners of a   hankerchief. Attached to the top of the stick was a sharp, pointed wire and to the end of the twine, silk ribbon and a key. The exact location of Franklin's experiment places it possibly in mid-June in a now vacant lot near the intersection of Eighteenth and Spring streets in Philadelphia.


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Pat Shingleton: "Early Predictions and Fronts..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-early-predictions-and-fronts-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-early-predictions-and-fronts-/ Pat Shingleton Column Wed, 17 Oct 2018 10:25:54 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

During idle time as an ambulance driver in World War I, Lewis Richardson would perform numerical weather experiments. He would catalog sky conditions, integrating numerical calculations into his journal. His sparse observations and calculations by hand didn't produce a useful forecast. Little did he know that his efforts were the beginning stages of modern weather predictions. He quickly wrote a manuscript that was lost but eventually discovered in a coal bin and later published. He left instructions, upon his death, that the rare book be given to the National Weather Service where it is on display in their Executive Suite. He envisioned a "large hall, like theater" filled with human computers, each doing calculations for a particular point on the Earth and passing information to his neighbors. As impractical as it might have been then, today, the NWS uses massive parallel computers executing those same calculations. Another front will slide through prior to kickoff with the Mississippi State Bulldogs. In addition to warm, stationary and occluded fronts, have you ever heard of an upper front? They're frontal boundaries in the upper atmosphere that don't extend to the ground. "Anafronts" occur when warm fronts advance into the high altitudes and "karafronts" descend as cold fronts from high altitudes. Another group of fronts exist near the equator, that separate air masses in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere known as "intertropical fronts." In south Louisiana, we're accustomed to fronts that travel from west to east. Another strange type of front is called a "backdoor cold front." These systems originate in the northwest Atlantic Ocean and move onto the Northeast coast. These fronts are associated with high-pressure systems spinning clockwise off the coast, pushing cooler marine air toward the land.


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Pat Shingleton: "Tree Rings, Rabbits and Pressure..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-tree-rings-rabbits-and-pressure-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-tree-rings-rabbits-and-pressure-/ Pat Shingleton Column Tue, 16 Oct 2018 9:47:39 PM Pat Shingelton: Pat Shingleton:

In my early days of television I had the pleasure of interviewing Dr. Russell Maag of N.W. Missouri State University. Dr. Maag believed that the thickness of animal pelts and years of abundant harvests targeted episodes of droughts. His research suggested that tree rings could serve as a model to the type of weather experienced at a given time in a specific area.  Thickness of the ring could explain an abundance of precipitation while a thinner ring suggested a deficit.  Climate-sensitive tree ring records were analyzed for Mexico and matched the infamous "Famine of One Rabbit" in 1454. "One Rabbit" is the first year of the 52-year Aztec calendar cycle and folklore suggests that famine and catastrophe occur in its return.  The tree ring data showed that a severe drought occurred before ten of the 13 One Rabbit years or around A.D. 882 to 1558.  This evidence suggests a climatological match to the curse. From tree rings and rabbits to pressure... Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted on the surface from the weight of air above the surface. We wouldn't know this if it weren't for events that took place at the Puy de Dome Observatory in Central France. The atmosphere is a fluid layer of gases, surrounding the earth with a total weight of 5,600 trillion tons. At sea level, a vertical column of air one inch square, rising to the atmosphere weighs 14.7 pounds. French scientist and philosopher, Blaise Pascal didn't know this in 1648 when he instructed his brother-in-law to carry a barometer from the base of the Puy de Dome, 1465 meters to its summit which resulted in a fall of three inches of mercury. This established the rate of variation of the Earth's atmospheric pressure due to altitude. Two-hundred years later the Puy de Dome Observatory became the first permanent mountain observatory in Europe.


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Pat Shingleton: "Under Pressure and Stinky Cheese..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-under-pressure-and-stinky-cheese--113445/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-under-pressure-and-stinky-cheese--113445/ Pat Shingleton Column Wed, 10 Oct 2018 10:27:58 PM Pat Shingleton Pat Shingleton:

Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted on the surface from the weight of air above the surface. We wouldn't know this if it weren't for events that took place at the Puy de Dome Observatory in Central France. The atmosphere is a fluid layer of gases, surrounding the earth with a total weight of 5,600 trillion tons. At sea level, a vertical column of air one inch square, rising to the atmosphere weighs 14.7 pounds. French scientist and philosopher, Blaise Pascal didn't know this in 1648 when he instructed his brother-in-law to carry a barometer from the base of the Puy de Dome, 1465 meters to its summit which resulted in a fall of three inches of mercury. This established the rate of variation of the Earth's atmospheric pressure due to altitude. Two-hundred years later the Puy de Dome Observatory became the first permanent mountain observatory in Europe. in closing...Tuesday's frontal passage, may find your nose collecting a whiff from the paper plants northwest of Baton Rouge. Bad odors are often one of the more evident aspects of air pollution. Even small concentrations of odors can be easily detected. When 50% of the population can detect an odor, it's called the olfactory threshold and can be as small as one part per million, billion, or trillion, depending on the chemical species. In Madison, Wisconsin, on May 3, 1991, strong winds fanned a fire at the Central Storage and Warehouse. This building housed large quantities of cheese and meat products. The blaze erupted into a giant grease fire and despite a driving rainstorm, the inferno burned for three days. The following days included record-hot weather that enhanced quick rotting of the food residue. Residents held their noses as hardware stores sold out of clothes-pins.


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Pat Shingleton: "The Leaves and New Founbdland..." http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-leaves-and-new-founbdland-/ http://www.wbrz.com/news/pat-shingleton-the-leaves-and-new-founbdland-/ Pat Shingleton Column Tue, 9 Oct 2018 9:52:56 PM Pat Shingleton: Pat Shingleton:

Fall foliage in New England is called second to none and Southern New England attracts a vast amount of leaf-peepers. This area is composed of three small states: Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts.  Rhode Island is the smallest, measuring about 30 miles across with Connecticut the third smallest. Weatherwise Magazine reported that balanced precipitation and consistent seasonal temperature variations support both agriculture and industry. The availability of year-long precipitation and melting snows allow for plentiful vegetative growth. In addition to the luxurious fall foliage, harvest-time also includes a large portion of the nation’s cranberry crop and apple harvest ranks high in the nation’s cash receipts per acre.  Should your travels take you to New England before the end of the month the peak period for leaf-changing displays are underway. In addition, there’s a small fishing village in Newfoundland that is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the foggiest place in the world.  Trepassey, located on the Avalon Peninsula, averages 160 days of fog per year.  Newfoundland’s provincial capital, St. John, north of Trepassey, experiences 124 days of fog per year.  St. John is also the rainiest with 60 inches or five feet of rain each year.  Hold on, there are a few more distinctions for this town, it’s also the snowiest with 1414.34 inches; the windiest with a daily average of 15 mph; the cloudiest with only 1,497 hours of sunshine and having the greatest number of days of freezing rain per year at 38.  Lovely...


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